Medicine is the science of health that is devoted to the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of illnesses and injuries (health problems) of human beings. These figures are essential in the maintenance of society as a unitary entity, for without them, life expectancy would be drastically lower.
As of 2016, it was estimated that worldwide there were 59 million health professionals. Based on this figure, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the interval between 2006 and 2015 as “The Decade of Human Resources for Health”, marking a historic milestone in health and social well-being. However, there is still much work to be done.
According to the World Data Bank, in countries such as Finland there are 3.8 doctors per 1,000 inhabitants, while in regions such as Zimbabwe, for the same population density, there are only 0.2 health professionals. Eighty percent of the workers in this sector work in countries which, together, are home to half of the world’s population. Strong health organizations in the poorest countries are still conspicuous by their absence.
This tells us that more and more doctors are needed.Whether you are interested in the subject or you want to become a doctor (or you already are), you should know the 14 most important branches of medicine, with their theoretical bases and applications in today’s society. Here we address this subject, so don’t miss it.
What are the disciplines within medicine?
The medical fields are as ramified and intricate as the complexity of the human organism itself. For their part, the specialties in medicine arise with the intention of filling a specific gap in the health system, always in search of well-being and providing the best possible care to all patients. Here are the 14 branches of medicine.
1. Allergy and immunology medicine
The world of allergology is booming, as more and more people are expected to have reactions to one or more allergens (current prevalence is 20% of the population). (current prevalence is 20% of the population). Understanding the underlying mechanisms of this misdirected immune reaction, in addition to genetic predisposing factors and possible treatments, will help humans avoid life-threatening side conditions such as anaphylactic shock.
A physician specialized in this field will be in charge of investigating and putting an end to respiratory tract problems (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, asthma), allergic skin conditions, adverse reactions to food and all those autoimmune pathologies that damage the patient’s organism in the short or long term.
Anesthesiology is the specialty of medicine that is in charge of accompanying the patient in those painful interventions that require the use of anesthesia. painful interventions that require the use of anesthesia.. This branch can be divided into several variants, since it is not the same to be an anesthesiologist in a palliative unit or in an operating room for a normal injury.
This branch requires little explanation: it encompasses all those professionals who are in charge of research and care of the skin. Very common pathologies, such as atopic dermatitis or acne vulgaris, are the main field of action of a dermatologist. However, as the skin is one of the first organs to show signs of other diseases, a patient with dermatological signs may be referred to another specialty (for example, if the cause of a bruise or petechiae is autoimmune).
4. Diagnostic radiology
Health care providers who specialize in this field learn to use imaging technologies, in order to diagnose and treat diseases. It is divided into two variants: diagnostic radiology (detecting disease) and interventional radiology (using imaging techniques to guide a procedure).
5. Emergency medicine
As its name suggests, this is the branch of medicine that deals with a medical emergency or any other acts on a medical emergency or on any ailment at its most acute peak.. In these scenarios, action is taken against the clock, since a lack of attention in minutes or a false step can lead to serious deterioration of the patient’s body’s functionality or death. For this reason, professionals in the emergency room must be highly qualified.
6. Family medicine
Family physicians are those who are located in our primary health care in our primary health care center of trust. While other specialists are dedicated to treating specific pathologies, these professionals see the patient as a whole, following his or her life history, tendencies and family background. They are the most general physicians and the ones we all go to when we feel ill for the first time.
7. Internal medicine
This is the branch that deals with maintenance of the homeostasis of the patient’s internal environment, i.e. the correct functioning of the patient’s internal environment.that is to say, the correct functioning of the heart, blood, kidneys, liver and other organs vital for survival. Internal physicians are those professionals who maintain the well-being and guide the patient during his stay in a hospital, coordinating with the rest of the professionals the steps to follow to avoid complications.
8. Genetic medicine
Physicians specializing in genetics aim to understand, treat and infer the probability of a genetic disease appearing in the offspring of a given parental set. This is a truly fascinating field of study, as the human genome and its mutations hold answers to many questions. the human genome and its mutations hold answers to many questions of a pathological nature. of a pathological nature.
A branch of medicine that combines applied knowledge with basic sciences, i.e. research. This specialty encompasses all those disorders disorders involving the nerves and the nervous system, from Alzheimer’s diseasefrom Alzheimer’s disease to the effects of hemorrhagic stroke. Neurologists seek not only to treat a condition, but to understand its mechanism of emergence and to deepen the knowledge of the human mind, from a physiological point of view.
10. Obstetrics and gynecology
The professionals in this branch are in charge of caring for and detecting problems in the female reproductive tract. problems in the female reproductive tract. They are also the health professionals who accompany a woman in the prepartum, childbirth and puerperium period.
Like dermatology, this branch does not require much explanation, as we have all been to the ophthalmologist at some time to check our eyesight or get our glasses adjusted. Generally these professionals treat refractive problems common in the general population, but they also deal with infections, glaucoma, glaucoma, eye problems and other eye problems. infections, glaucoma, pathological problems of the ocular environment and certain reconstructive surgeries..
12. Pathological medicine
A pathologist is a medical professional who has specialized in the study of diseases of the eye. specialized in the study of diseases of the eye.. In other words, this branch analyzes at the cellular, tissue and systemic level the mechanisms underlying the appearance of symptoms of a disease. In these cases, we do not directly treat or diagnose a disease, but rather try to learn more about it in order to offer more effective solutions in the future.
13. Pediatric medicine
This branch is very similar to family medicine, but specializes in the follow-up of a patient from birth until the end of the infant stage. a patient from birth to the end of the infant stage.. The pathologies that affect infants are very different from those of other adults (due to a less developed immune system), so they must be analyzed and treated separately.
14. Preventive medicine
Preventive medicine aims to to raise awareness and educate the population in the health fieldThe aim of preventive medicine is to prevent the occurrence of preventable diseases. This branch promotes good hygiene practices, maintaining an active lifestyle, avoiding chronic stress, exercise and much more. While many conditions are unavoidable, many others can be prevented before they appear through healthy living.
As you will have seen, the branch is divided into as many fields as there are anatomical features of the human body. Some of these disciplines even go beyond the body, as variants such as family medicine or preventive medicine also analyze the patient from a socioeconomic or family point of view, or as part of a larger population.
Medicine starts with prevention and does not end until the patient experiences his or her last heartbeat.. As long as a person is alive, there will be a medical specialty that will try to make their existence as long-lived and enjoyable as possible.