We always stress the fact that more than the experiences we live through, it is the meaning we attach to those experiences that really marks us. It is the interpretation of those events that causes the emotions we feel and what leads us to want to relive the event or avoid it at all costs.
But what happens when our perceptions of what happened what happens when our perceptions of who we are are incorrect? Can we act calmly knowing inside that something is wrong even though no one else finds it wrong?
In short, this is what cognitive dissonance is all about. They are a kind of constant confrontation between what we think and what we do on a daily basis, as they cause an internal conflict between our actions and the ideas we have about something. But how much do cognitive dissonances affect us on a daily basis?
If you want to find out, then do not miss this article, where we will talk about this phenomenon and what are the types of cognitive dissonances that exist. Will you be able to recognize any of them?
What are cognitive dissonances?
According to psychological theories, cognitive dissonances refer to the alteration of the belief system and emotions. alteration of the system of beliefs and emotions that is perceived in the face of an event that generates discomfort, due to the fact that a direct clash occurs.This is due to a direct clash between opposing or incompatible ideas. In this way, the person is experiencing a continuous discordance between what he is thinking and what he is manifesting with his actions, affecting his attitudes and the way he shows himself to others.
A very clear example for this case is to see those people who claim to have a perfect control of their emotions, alleging that they use their reasoning more than their sentimental side, but they tend to explode irrationally in front of an act that bothers them. Thus, it is evident that maintains an internal conflict between what he thinks he is doing and what he actually does..
Therefore, at certain times and at very specific levels, we have all experienced some case of dissonance, we have all experienced a case or two of cognitive dissonance.where we believe we are right about something and we are convinced of it, but when it comes to experiencing it when the time comes to experience it, our behavior is completely different from this belief.Has it ever happened to you? If so, there is no need to panic, as this alteration can even help you to identify your weaknesses, overcome them and improve them.
Why does this phenomenon occur?
This cognitive dissonance was proposed in 1957 by the psychologist Leon Festinger, in a theory that manifests the need for people to maintain a constant and rational people’s need to maintain a constant and rational control between their ideas and their behavior, so that there is a constant and rational control between their ideas and their behavior.The aim is that there is a coherence between the two, so that a level of complete and unbreakable harmony can be reached.
However, this is almost impossible, this is almost impossibleHowever, this is almost impossible, since there will always be inconsistencies between them and that is exactly what makes us create our own belief system and develop the attitudes we take towards the world.
Therefore, when these alterations occur, people try their best to diminish, avoid or eliminate them, producing anxiety and constant stress due to this pressure to maintain the perfect balance. In extreme cases, people come to find justifications for their actions and defend their ideals, to the point of self-deception, opting for fallacies or making abrupt changes in their behaviors and behaviors. and behaviors.
These dissonances can, moreover, be related in three different ways:
Dissonantly.: it occurs when the individual knows that an action is wrong but does it anyway without analyzing or caring about the consequences.
Consonant relationshipThe opposite of the previous one, when the person knows that something has a consequence and, therefore, acts in order to avoid it.
IrrelevantCognitive dissonance: in this case, people act almost ignorant of an event that may harm them, almost as if it did not exist.
Types of cognitive dissonance
Knowing these types of cognitive dissonance can help you not only to identify when you may be using them, but also when others around you manifest them.
Also known as filtering, this is when people are inclined to have ‘tunnel vision’, i.e., they can only focus on a single aspect. can only focus on one aspect of something instead of looking at the big picture or considering other alternatives. or consider other alternatives. This leads people to end up remembering the event or a person only for that factor, which ends up negatively influencing their perception.
This, as its name suggests, is based on the fact that people tend to exaggerate and overgeneralize. globalize something because they have experienced a single event, which may or may not have a direct relationship to it, but whichThe first one, which may or may not have a direct relationship with the event, but still ends up influencing it until it ends up as an invalid conclusion.
A clear example of this is to think that a person has lost interest or is doing something deceitful when they have not answered us a quick message. Because that is what cheaters or those who want to end a relationship do. Everything is the fruit of our mind.
3. Polarized thinking
This dissonance consists in the fact that a person can go from one extreme to the other in terms of their perception of something, without taking into account the intermediate elements between the two. They only see two options: ‘black or white’, ‘yes or no’ or ‘yes or no’.yes or no’ or ‘good or bad’. They do not consider at all that there are other possibilities in between. This is very common in people who are self-punishing or devaluing.
4. Arbitrary inference
From information that may well be incomplete or untrue, judgments and conclusions can be made that affect the opinion held on a particular subject. In this situation, people do not bother to inquire further into the matter, but are content to listen to what most captures their attention. are content to listen to whatever captures their attention the most..
5. Interpretation or thought reading
Surely it has ever happened to you or you have heard someone say ‘They are laughing a lot, I’m sure they are talking about me’ referring to a group of people. That person is convinced that they are laughing at them. This is because there is a tendency to This is due to the fact that we tend to interpret the intentions or thoughts of others without any basis, but with a projective character.but with a projective character.
6. Confirmatory bias
This is a very common tendency that you may also have experienced. It is based on the fact that we give an interpretation to a reality or a thought. We give a conclusion to an event in such a way that it agrees with the beliefs we had about it. about it. For example. I already knew that I could not do well in it, because I felt it.
7. Catastrophic vision
Perhaps the name can give you an idea of what this cognitive dissonance refers to. It is about always thinking and magnifying in advance the outcome of an event, which will personally affect uswhich will affect us personally in a very negative way.
8. Divine reward fallacy
This is one of the most popular cognitive dissonances of all and is almost a religious and mystical concept. It is a belief that, no matter what problems you have or the consequences of them, the situation will always improve with time, the situation will always get better with time, even if we do nothing to change it..
It is somewhat similar to thought reading, only that in this one there is a firm belief that everything that happens around us in one way or another has to do with us, as if we influence the course of it.as if we influence the course of it.
10. Fortune teller’s error
This is to have a sort of certain and intuitive approximation of something intuitive approximation of something that is going to happen in the future (according to our perception of an event). (according to our perception of an event) and therefore, we act with respect to it. This is often used as an excuse to avoid something or to procrastinate.
This dissonance has to do with attributing an extreme and unjustified sense of responsibility either to oneself or to another person, without considering at all the involvement of other aspects. It is like being judge, jury and executioner at the same time..
12. The “shoulds”
‘I shouldn’t do that’, ‘I’d better do that’, ‘I should be listened to’…. The “shoulds” are considered as a social stigma that the person adopts to manage his life in a controlled and perfect way. Therefore, it leaves no room for committing any act that deviates from any regulation, but prefers to follow the rules rigidly and correctly, with no room for flexibility. rigidly and correctly follow the rules, with no room for flexibility..
13. To be right
This is based on the frequent, repetitive, and almost obsessive need to to prove, every time one has the opportunity, that one is right about something, to the point of about something, to the point of dismissing and humiliating the opinion of others. These people cannot even listen to other people’s arguments that go in a different direction from their beliefs.
14. Fallacy of change
This is another very frequent dissonance. It is about people having the firm conviction that their particular situation is influenced by the actions of those around them, so that if others change their own personal lives, everything will improve. This is because they firmly believe that their world depends entirely on others.instead of being the ones to make the necessary changes themselves.
15. Fallacy of justice
This is to consider as unjust all those things that happen that are not related to what people expect to happen or to their beliefs. It is as if the world is constantly against them. For example, it often happens with students who fail and think that it is due to an injustice committed against them and not because they have not put effort into their studies.